【樂活書蟲】改變,好容易

四, 2010/12/23 - 06:15 — 陳晉茂

 

每到新階段,心中總會升起許多新目標。可能是關乎一生的重大計畫;也可能是生活習慣的調整。回想我們這一生,不知訂過多少豪情萬丈的計畫,不管是幾個月內要減幾公斤、保持健康飲食與作息、看完幾本書、存多少錢、甚至是改變這個世界‧‧‧‧‧‧

 

可是,當進一步檢視,大多數的人(包括我)恐怕只覺慚愧,太多計畫沒有完成,甚至沒有開始!為什麼會這樣?通常,我們將這失敗歸罪於決心、信心、耐心、恆心的不足,激勵自己在下次計畫中要有這些「心」。但,就像是重播,事情常常再度上演──一模一樣的劇情。

 

有上面的那些「心」當然必要,但我們還需要知道方法,絕不能單靠意志力。《創意黏力學》兄弟檔作者奇普‧海斯丹‧海斯在新作《改變,好容易》中就指出這套改變的方法。他們分析出的方法不是信口拈來,不但有套完整架構,更以心理實驗為依據。

 

以大象與騎象人為隱喻,騎象人象徵我們的理性;大象則是感性的部份。騎象人要騎著大象穿過叢林到達預定終點,必須要:

  • 指揮騎象人

  • 刺激大象

  • 營造路徑

 

想要改變,騎象人心中必須有清晰明確的目標,模糊不清的指令會讓人無所適從。書中舉的一個例子好貼切:美國政府制定的食物金字塔(台灣也有)。原意是要告訴民眾均衡飲食應該攝取多少蛋白質、蔬果、澱粉、油脂。立意雖佳,問題卻很大,因為就算你了解各項營養素該吃多少公克,真的要執行起來卻毫無頭緒。這真是目標模糊的最佳例子!

 

就算騎象人(理性)明確知道該行進的方向,但要想長時間戰勝大象,從情感面著手才是關鍵。很多事我們也知道該怎麼做,但往往就是缺乏動力。要成就一件事需有長時間的熱情,而我們身為人,惰性難免,如何在感性方面保持動力,甚是重要。

 

營造路徑指的是創造情境。人其實非常不理性,隨情境不同就會有極不同的表現。如果能用心營造一個能幫助我們在理性與感性面都比較有助於朝向目標的情境,大象與騎象人順利到達目的地的機率勢必大增。我想,孟母三遷或跑到圖書館唸書都是創造情境的行為。

 

這三個大方向是本書基礎,各章節還有更深入的方法。不管想改變的是自己、團體還是整個世界。我認為這架構都是有效的,當然,任何改變都要用心,絕對不像中文書名所寫的那麼「容易」。

 

 

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